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    《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(12)(中英對照)

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    3. Furthering Protection of the Rights of Ethnic Minorities

    3.少數民族權益保障進一步完善

    Guaranteeing the right of ethnic minority groups to participate in the administration of state affairs. The provisions in the Constitution and laws regarding the representation of ethnic minority groups in the leadership of organs exercising regional autonomy and the election of ethnic minority deputies to the people's congresses are strictly implemented.

    少數民族參與國家事務管理權利得到有效保障。嚴格落實憲法法律關于民族自治地方的自治機關領導人員中配備少數民族領導干部的規定,以及關于少數民族人大代表選舉的規定。

    The Electoral Law stipulates that ethnic groups with a small population shall have at least one deputy to the NPC. All 55 ethnic minority groups have deputies to the NPC and members in the CPPCC National Committee. The 13th NPC has 438 ethnic minority deputies, accounting for 14.7 percent of the total.

    選舉法明確規定,人口特少的民族,至少應有全國人大代表一人。55個少數民族均有本民族的全國人大代表和全國政協委員。十三屆全國人大代表中,少數民族代表438名,占14.7%。

    Raising the living standards of ethnic minority groups and areas. Special programs have been launched, and policies and measures have been implemented to boost the economy of ethnic minority areas, such as the development of the western region, the action plan to bring prosperity to border areas and their residents, paired assistance between developed areas and less developed ethnic autonomous areas, special support for ethnic groups with small populations, and preservation and development of ethnic minority villages and towns.

    少數民族和民族地區生活水平大幅提升。國家制定專項規劃,實施西部大開發、興邊富民行動、對口支援以及扶持人口較少民族發展、少數民族特色村鎮保護與發展等一系列政策措施,促進民族地區經濟快速發展。

    Between 2018 and 2020, the five autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang, and the three provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai with large ethnic minority populations recorded faster economic growth than the national average. The per capita disposable income of their residents increased from RMB150 in 1978 to RMB24,534 in 2020.

    內蒙古、廣西、西藏、寧夏、新疆五個自治區和貴州、云南、青海三個多民族省份2018年至2020年的總體經濟增長幅度超過全國平均增長水平,居民人均可支配收入從1978年的150多元增長到2020年的24534元。

    Developing education in ethnic minority areas. China has adopted a series of measures to promote educational equality and ensure ethnic minorities' right to education. These measures include opening more schools in ethnic minority areas, offering preparatory courses or special classes at secondary schools and universities to ethnic minority students, running boarding schools in farming and pastoral areas, and developing higher education in ethnic minority areas.

    少數民族和民族地區教育事業快速發展。中國通過發展民族地區各級各類學校,舉辦預科班、民族班,在廣大農牧區推行寄宿制教育,著力辦好民族地區高等教育等舉措,促進教育公平,保障少數民族受教育權利。

    All ethnic minority areas have enforced nine-year compulsory education from primary school to junior high school. In the Tibet Autonomous Region and in Hotan, Kashgar, and Aksu prefectures and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, students enjoy 15 years of free education from preschool to senior high school.

    民族地區已全面普及從小學到初中9年義務教育,西藏自治區和新疆維吾爾自治區的南疆阿克蘇地區、克孜勒蘇柯爾克孜自治州、喀什地區、和田地區四地州實現了從學前到高中階段15年免費教育。

    Boosting cultural undertakings of ethnic minority groups. While promoting standard spoken and written Chinese, the state protects the right of ethnic minority groups to use and develop their own spoken and written languages to consolidate ethnic unity and social harmony. As of 2020, there were 729 radio and television stations in ethnic autonomous areas. The broadcasting stations across the country run 279 television channels and 188 radio programs in ethnic minority languages.

    少數民族文化事業蓬勃發展。在民族地區推廣普及國家通用語言文字,依法保障各民族使用和發展自己的語言文字的自由,促進民族團結和社會和諧。截至2020年,民族自治地方共設置廣播電臺、電視臺、廣播電視臺等播出機構729個。全國各級播出機構共開辦民族語電視頻道279套,民族語廣播188套。

    The Site of Xanadu, the Tusi Sites, the Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, the Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace of Lhasa, and Silk Roads: The Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor are all included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Of the 42 items from China included in the UNESCO Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage, 15 are from ethnic minority areas.

    元上都遺址、土司遺址、紅河哈尼梯田文化景觀、拉薩布達拉宮歷史建筑群(含羅布林卡和大昭寺)、“絲綢之路:長安-天山廊道的路網”等列入世界文化遺產名錄。中國入選聯合國教科文組織人類非物質文化遺產名錄(名冊)的42項非物質文化遺產中,少數民族項目有15項,占37.5%。

    China has established 11 national (pilot) cultural reserves in ethnic minority areas. A total of 25 provinces and equivalent administrative units have institutions that catalogue and study ancient classics and records of ethnic minorities. By 2020, about 1 million privately-held ethnic minority ancient classics and records (excluding books collected in museums and temples), including many rare editions and single extant copies, had been rescued and catalogued. China has launched the compilation of Collection of Ancient Classics and Records of Chinese Ethnic Minorities, which will include about 300,000 books upon completion.

    在少數民族地區設立了11個國家級文化生態保護(實驗)區。全國25個?。▍^、市)已建立民族古籍整理與研究機構,截至2020年,搶救、整理散藏民間的少數民族古籍約百萬種(不含館藏及寺院藏書),包括很多珍貴的孤本和善本。組織實施《中國少數民族古籍總目提要》編纂工程,全部完成后將收錄書目約30萬種。

    Safeguarding peace and stability in ethnic minority areas. In this unified multiethnic country, the sense of identity of the Chinese nation is heightened to unite all the people in pressing forward for common prosperity and a bright future. With strong support from all ethnic groups, the government takes lawful actions to combat terrorists, separatists and religious extremists, to safeguard ethnic unity and social stability. People's rights to a peaceful existence, to life and health, and to property are effectively protected, and their sense of gain, happiness and security continues to grow.

    民族地區人民生活安寧祥和。在統一多民族的中國,不斷鑄牢中華民族共同體意識,堅持共同團結奮斗、共同繁榮發展,各民族共建美好家園,共創美好未來。在各族人民群眾共同支持下,國家依法打擊民族分裂勢力、宗教極端勢力、暴力恐怖勢力,維護民族團結和社會穩定,人民的生活安寧權、生命健康權、財產權等得到有效保障,獲得感、幸福感、安全感不斷提升。

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