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    《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(13)(中英對照)

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    4. Strengthening Guarantee of the Rights of People with Disabilities

    4.殘疾人權益保障更加有力

    Improving social security. China has established a subsidy system to provide for the living expenses of disabled people in need and to pay the nursing costs of people with severe disabilities. By 2020, the system had benefitted 12.1 million poor disabled people and 14.7 million with severe disabilities in need of nursing. A total of 27 million people with disabilities were covered in old-age insurance schemes in both urban and rural areas, with 11.4 million receiving pensions. 10.8 million people with disabilities received urban or rural subsistence allowances, including 6.4 million with severe disabilities. The government paid basic old-age insurance premiums for 96.7 percent of the 6.8 million people with severe disabilities. The government also fully or partly paid the premiums for 3 million people with mild or moderate disabilities.

    殘疾人社會保障體系不斷完善。全面建立困難殘疾人生活補貼和重度殘疾人護理補貼制度。截至2020年,享受困難殘疾人生活補貼人數有1212.6萬人,享受重度殘疾人護理補貼人數有1473.8萬人。截至2020年,共有2699.2萬殘疾人參加城鄉居民社會養老保險,其中1140.5萬殘疾人領取養老金;1076.8萬殘疾人獲得城鄉最低生活保障,其中重度殘疾人641.4萬人;680.1萬重度殘疾人中政府代繳養老保險費比例達到96.7%;另有303.7萬非重度殘疾人享受全額或部分代繳養老保險費的優惠政策。

    Making rehabilitation universally available. The government has included rehabilitation services for the disabled in plans for basic public services, and carried out targeted rehabilitation programs to help those in need. It has established a rehabilitation assistance mechanism for disabled children, developed community rehabilitation services for people with mental illnesses, and boosted the industry of rehabilitation assistive devices. Basic rehabilitation services and products are provided to disabled children and people with certified disabilities.

    殘疾人康復服務普惠可及。殘疾人康復服務納入基本公共服務規劃,建立殘疾兒童康復救助制度,實施殘疾人精準康復服務行動,發展精神障礙社區康復服務,推進康復輔助器具產業發展,為殘疾兒童和持證殘疾人提供基本康復服務和產品。

    In 2020, 10.8 million disabled children and people with certified disabilities received basic rehabilitation services, and 2.4 million people with disabilities benefited from adaption services for assistive devices. About 676,000 disabled children have benefited from a rehabilitation assistance mechanism that was initiated in 2018.

    2020年,1077.7萬名殘疾兒童及持證殘疾人得到基本康復服務,242.6萬名殘疾人得到各類輔助器具適配服務。自2018年建立實施殘疾兒童康復救助制度以來,全國接受康復救助的殘疾兒童達67.6萬人次。殘疾預防工作取得積極成效。

    Efforts to prevent disability have paid off. In 2017, the State Council approved the establishment of August 25 as the Disability Prevention Day, to promote public awareness of disability prevention. The National Disability Prevention Action Plan (2016-2020) laid out effective measures for controlling the occurrence of birth defects and disabilities caused by development disorders, preventing disabilities caused by illnesses, reducing injuries that cause disabilities, and improving rehabilitation services. Substantial progress has been made in these four areas, and the main targets have been reached.

    2017年國務院批準將每年8月25日設立為“殘疾預防日”,提高公眾殘疾預防意識。制定發布《國家殘疾預防行動計劃(2016-2020年)》,有效控制出生缺陷和發育障礙致殘、著力防控疾病致殘、努力減少傷害致殘和顯著改善康復服務等四項行動取得積極進展,主要任務目標基本實現。

    Creating better access to education. People with disabilities have an equal right to education that is guaranteed through special education and inclusive education. In 2020, there were 2,244 special education schools with 66,200 full-time teachers and 880,800 students, an increase of 512,700 students or 139 percent from 2013. Continued efforts have also been made to provide the necessary support for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, and the number of students with disabilities attending regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 435,800 in 2020, an increase of 128 percent. Over the past decade, about 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools. Free 12-year education from primary school to senior high school has been ensured for disabled students from poor families.

    殘疾人受教育水平穩步提高。著力辦好特殊教育,大力發展融合教育,努力保障殘疾人享有平等受教育權。2020年全國共有特殊教育學校2244所,專任教師6.62萬人,在校學生88.08萬人,比2013年增加51.27萬人,增長139.3%。不斷完善隨班就讀支持保障體系,在普通學校隨班就讀的殘疾學生規模不斷擴大,由2013年的19.1萬人增加到2020年的43.58萬人,增長128.2%。近10年來,殘疾學生在普通學校就讀的比例均接近或超過50%。全國實現了家庭經濟困難殘疾學生從小學到高中階段教育的12年免費教育。

    Guaranteeing the right to work. China promotes the employment of people with disabilities by improving relevant laws and regulations, expanding employment channels, and improving services. In 2020, there were 2,811 employment service agencies and 478 vocational training centers for people with disabilities, and the number of employed people with certified disabilities reached 8.6 million.

    殘疾人就業權利得到更好保障。中國通過完善法律法規、拓展就業渠道、完善服務體系,促進殘疾人就業權利的實現。截至2020年,全國共有殘疾人就業服務機構2811家,國家級殘疾人職業培訓基地478家,城鄉持證殘疾人就業人數855.2萬人。

    Efforts have been made to help people with disabilities emerge from poverty. Between 2015 and 2020, China built 4,581 poverty alleviation centers for people with disabilities, helping 409,000 disabled people find jobs and increase income. The per capita net income of registered poor household with disabled members grew from RMB2,776 in 2015 to RMB8,726 in 2019.

    積極開展殘疾人扶貧。2015年至2020年,全國共建立4581個殘疾人扶貧基地,扶持近40.9萬殘疾人就業增收;建檔立卡貧困殘疾人家庭人均純收入由2015年的2776.2元增長到2019年的8726.2元。

    Building an accessible environment. The Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment have come into effect. As of 2020, 1,753 cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers, and 469 cities, counties, towns, and villages had been recognized by the state as barrier-free. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 81 percent of entrances and exits, 56.6 percent of service counters and 38.7 percent of restrooms had been upgraded for accessibility. Between 2016 and 2020, home adaptation was carried out for 650,000 poor families with severely disabled members. As of 2019, there were 2,341 comprehensive service facilities, 1,006 rehabilitation facilities, and 887 care facilities for people with disabilities; at the provincial level, 25 radio programs and 32 sign language television programs serviced people with disabilities; and there were 1,174 reading rooms with Braille and audio books.

    殘疾人無障礙環境建設大力推進。制定實施《無障礙環境建設條例》。截至2020年,1753個市、縣開展無障礙建設,全國累計創建469個無障礙市縣村鎮。全國村(社區)綜合服務設施中有81.05%的出入口、56.58%的服務柜臺、38.66%的廁所進行了無障礙建設和改造。2016年至2020年,全國共有65萬貧困重度殘疾人家庭得到了無障礙改造。截至2019年,全國已建成各級殘疾人綜合服務設施2341個,康復設施1006個,托養服務設施887個;共有省級殘疾人專題廣播節目25個、電視手語欄目32個;設立盲文及盲文有聲讀物閱覽室1174個。

    A variety of measures have been taken to promote information accessibility, increasing the supply of accessible terminal products, and applying accessible products and technologies for better services. By expanding the channels for people with disabilities to engage in an information society, and facilitating the application of information technology to build an accessible environment, China is trying hard to eliminate the digital divide and create a more inclusive society.

    全面推進信息無障礙建設,增強信息無障礙終端產品供給,推進無障礙產品和服務技術推廣應用,拓寬殘疾人參與信息社會的渠道,推動信息化與無障礙環境的深度融合,消除“數字鴻溝”,助力社會包容性發展。

    Moderate prosperity covers every aspect. The Chinese government gives top priority to ensuring people's wellbeing, and spares no effort in addressing concerns of the people. Significant progress has been made in ensuring access to childcare, education, employment, housing, medical services, elderly care, and social assistance. Moderate prosperity in all respects benefits all Chinese people and enables them to enjoy greater human rights than ever before.

    全面小康,貴在全面。中國始終把人民安危冷暖、安居樂業放在首位,全力解決好人民群眾關心的問題,在幼有所育、學有所教、勞有所得、病有所醫、老有所養、住有所居、弱有所扶上取得顯著進展。全面建成小康社會惠益了全體人民,使中國人民享有了比任何時候都更為充分的人權。

    Conclusion

    結束語

    Under the CPC's leadership, the Chinese people have achieved moderate prosperity in all respects, a historic undertaking completed through consistent hard work.

    全面建成小康社會,是全體中國人民在中國共產黨領導下拼搏奮斗的一項偉大壯舉。

    In this process, China has respected and protected human rights within the institutional framework of Chinese socialism under CPC leadership: applying the principle of universality of human rights in China's context; taking a people-centered approach to human rights; protecting the rights to subsistence and development as the primary task; promoting human rights through development; with a happy life as the ultimate goal; providing legal guarantee for the protection of human rights; promoting comprehensive progress in human rights; building a global community of shared future.

    全面建成小康社會的偉大實踐,積累了尊重和保障人權的寶貴經驗。這就是在中國共產黨的領導下,在中國特色社會主義制度中,堅持人權的普遍性與中國國情相結合,堅持以人民為中心的人權理念,堅持生存權發展權是首要的基本人權,堅持以發展促人權,堅持人民幸福生活是最大的人權,堅持人權法治保障,堅持促進人權事業全面發展,推動構建人類命運共同體。

    China's population is about one fifth of the world's total. China's success in realizing moderate prosperity is a milestone in the history of global human rights. China's approach and experience have provided a distinctive path forward for human progress.

    中國人口占世界總人口的近五分之一。中國全面建成小康社會,是世界人權事業發展史上的重要里程碑。中國在全面建成小康社會的偉大進程中,所創造的尊重和保障人權的成功做法和經驗,為增進人類福祉貢獻了中國智慧、提供了中國方案。

    There is no end to improving human rights. Moderate prosperity is a new starting point on China's quest for human rights. To fully build China into a modern socialist country, the CPC will practice the new development philosophy, build a new development dynamic, and pursue high-quality development, to ensure the Chinese people live a happier life and enjoy more extensive human rights. As a commitment to the world, China will make a greater contribution to global human rights.

    人權保障沒有最好,只有更好。全面建成小康社會,奠定了中國人權發展進步的新起點。在全面建設社會主義現代化國家新征程中,中國共產黨將把握新發展階段,貫徹新發展理念,構建新發展格局,推動高質量發展,繼續帶領全體人民為享有更加幸福安康的生活和更高水平的人權而奮斗。中國必將為世界人權事業發展作出新的更大貢獻。

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