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    菲利普·古斯頓引發爭議的藝術(上)

    來源:經濟學人 編輯:Sara ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
      


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    Culture

    文化

    Back Story -- Art of controversy

    幕后故事——引發爭議的藝術

    A struggle over Philip Guston's paintings and artistic freedom ends in triumph

    圍繞菲利普·古斯頓的畫作和藝術自由的斗爭以勝利告終

    "Probably the only thing one can really learn", Philip Guston eventually concluded, "is the capacity to be able to change."

    “或許一個人真正能學到的只有一件事,那就是能夠改變的能力?!狈评铡す潘诡D最終總結道。

    The modern artist's fate, he said, was "constant change".

    這位現代藝術家的命運,用他自己的話來說,是“持續不斷的變化”。

    As a painter he embraced that fate -- and in posterity his work has proved both an index of change and a challenge to it.

    作為一名畫家,他接受了這種命運——在后人看來,他的作品既是變化的索引,也是對變化的挑戰。

    A new show in Boston charts his restless genius; it is also the canvas for a struggle over art's freedom and obligations, and the contested balance between them.

    波士頓的一場新展覽展示了他不安分的天賦;也呈現了關于藝術的自由與責任,以及兩者之間相互爭奪的平衡。

    Twice Guston, who died in 1980, made a reputation and gave it up -- first as a figurative artist and muralist in the 1930s and 1940s, next by plunging into abstraction with his friend Jackson Pollock and other mid-century American pioneers.

    古斯頓于1980年去世,他曾兩度成名又放棄——第一次是作為20世紀30年代和40年代的具象藝術家和壁畫藝術家,第二次是與他的朋友杰克遜·波洛克以及其他20世紀中葉的美國先驅者一起投身抽象藝術。

    Boldly he returned to figuration in the late 1960s, dwelling on banal yet somehow uncanny objects: light bulbs, bricks, boots.

    20世紀60年代末,他大膽地回歸到具象藝術,專注于畫平凡卻不知何故顯得離奇的物品上:燈泡、磚塊、靴子。

    He painted heads, distorted or half-submerged.

    他畫異形的或半浸在水中的人頭。

    And he made a series of paintings of triangular hooded figures that recall the Ku Klux Klan.

    他也畫過一些三角形兜帽形象,讓人聯想到三K黨。

    When first exhibited in 1970, these caused an art-world scandal -- not because of the imagery, or Guston's right to use it, but over the brashly cartoonish technique.

    這些畫作于1970年首次展出時在藝術界引發了一場風波——不是因為圖像,也不是因為古斯頓使用它的權利,而是因為無禮的卡通畫手法。

    A retrospective staged in 2003-04 passed without uproar.

    2003-04年舉辦的一場回顧展沒有引起騷動。

    But in 2020, in the ferment after the murder of George Floyd, the organisers of the then-upcoming new show quailed at Guston's motifs and themes.

    但在2020年,在喬治·弗洛伊德被謀殺后的動蕩中,當時即將舉辦的新展覽的組織者對古斯頓的畫作內容和主題感到畏縮。

    The director of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, where it was due to open first, said he had "appropriated images of black trauma".

    華盛頓國家美術館的館長稱,他“盜用了黑人創傷的意象”,作品原定于該美術館首展。

    The problem, implicitly, was both what Guston painted and who he was.

    隱含的問題既關于古斯頓畫的是什么,也關于他是誰。

    Well, who was he?

    那么,他是誰?

    The son of Jewish refugees from Odessa, he changed his name from Goldstein to evade anti-Semitism.

    他的父母是來自敖德薩的猶太難民,為了躲避反猶太主義,他改掉了自己原來的名字戈爾茨坦。

    The Klan was active in the Los Angeles of his youth and his early work also evoked its crimes, alongside other fascistic atrocities.

    他年輕的時候,三K黨在洛杉磯很活躍,他的早期作品也描繪了三K黨的罪行,以及其他法西斯暴行。

    He turned away from abstraction in part out of an enduring sense of political duty.

    他不再畫抽象,部分是出于一種長久的政治責任感。

    "What kind of man am I", he felt in the 1960s, "sitting at home, reading magazines, going into a fury about everything -- and then going into my studio to adjust a red to a blue."

    “我是一個什么樣的人”,他在20世紀60年代的時候覺悟到,“坐在家里,看著雜志,對一切都感到憤怒——然后走進我的畫室,把紅色調成藍色?!?/p>

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    重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
    dwelling ['dweliŋ]

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    n. 住處

     
    trauma ['trɔ:mə]

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    n. 精神創傷,外傷

    聯想記憶
    ferment ['fə:ment]

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    n. 酵素,發酵,動亂
    v. 使 ... 發酵

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    triumph ['traiəmf]

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    n. 凱旋,歡欣
    vi. 得勝,成功,慶功

     
    artistic [ɑ:'tistik]

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    adj. 藝術的

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    figurative ['figjurətiv]

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    adj. 比喻的,形容多的,修飾豐富的

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    challenge ['tʃælindʒ]

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    n. 挑戰
    v. 向 ... 挑戰

     
    uproar ['ʌprɔ:]

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    n. 騷動,喧囂

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    banal [bə'nɑ:l]

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    adj. 陳腐的,平庸的

     
    uncanny ['ʌn'kæni]

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    adj. 神秘的,不可思議的

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